Indian Railways in collaboration with General Electric (GE) has inducted two Digitally Enabled Locomotives based on state of art insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) technology. The two HHP prototypes locomotives were wholly designed in India under Make in India program and manufactured under Public Private collaboration (PPP) through MoU with GE.
Under the public private relationship initiative, Indian Railway has inducted its first fully digitally enabled high horse power locomotive. This locomotive guarantees greater reliability, maintainability and availability produced in collaboration with General Electric.
The digitally enabled locomotive predicated on the state-of-the-art insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) technology, deals with combined advantages of high efficiency and fast switching. General Electric has handed over the symbolic reverse tips to Chairman of Railway Board, Ashwani Lohani, at a ceremony held at Northern Railway’s Diesel Loco Shed in Lucknow as a gesture of inducting the two HHP locomotives into the Indian Railway system.
Both High Horse Power model locomotives are wholly designed in India under the ‘Make in India’ programme and manufactured under the PPP model through a memorandum of understanding with GE. The total investment amount is Rs13,000 crore and under the agreement Indian Railways has a 26% stake.
The engines have safety features including self load, toilet facility, upgraded computer-controlled braking (CCB system), electronic fuel injection system, fuel-efficient locomotive, IGBT-based traction technology and is compliant with India’s UIC emission norm. The locomotive is also the first fully digitally-enabled locomotive with greater reliability and availability and it is also provided with a device to manage disasters.
This production unit for the locomotive is spread over 9.15 hectares, with settlement facility with a total section of 200 acres. This factory will start loco manufacturing from October 2018. Locos will be maintained in Roza, UP and Gandhidham, Gujarat.
IGBT technology has a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch, which was developed to give the combined benefits of high efficiency and fast switching. It offers higher power gain than the standard bipolar type transistor combined with the higher voltage operation and lower input losses.
The first GE manufactured Diesel locomotive No 49001 for Indian Railways, shipped from USA, landed in the country on 11th October 2017 and was put to extensive trials. The Salient features of the GE Locomotive are four stroke engine, 12 cylinders, 06 traction motors, AC Dual Cab locomotive; Safety features for personal load, toilet facility, Upgraded Computer Controlled Braking (CCB system), Electronic Fuel Injection system, Gas Efficient locomotive, IGBT structured grip technology, Compliant with India’s UIC emission norm.
The locomotive is also the first completely digitally enabled locomotive with better dependability and availability and is also given a device to control disasters.
An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)
An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal power semiconductor device mainly used as an electronic switch which, as it was developed, came to combine high efficiency and fast turning. It switches electric power in many applications: variable-frequency drives (VFDs), electric cars, trains, variable rate refrigerators, light fixture ballasts, air-conditioners and even stereo systems with switching amplifiers. The IGBT is a semiconductor device with four alternating layers (P-N-P-N) that are controlled by a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate structure without regenerative action.
Advantages of IGBT:
The IGBT combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of MOSFETs with the high-current and low-saturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors. The IGBT combines an isolated-gate FET for the control insight and a bipolar power transistor as a switch within a device. The IGBT can be used in medium- to high-power applications like switched-mode power supplies, traction force electric motor control and induction heating. Large IGBT modules typically consist of many devices in parallel and can have very high current-handling capabilities in the order of hundreds of amperes with blocking voltages of 6500 V. These IGBTs can control loads of a huge selection of kilowatts.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has launched Ombudsman Scheme for nonbanking financial companies (NBFCs) for redressal of complaints against NBFCs registered with RBI under section 45-IA of the RBI Take action, 1934. The structure provides cost-free and expeditious problem redressal mechanism associated with deficiency in services by non-banking financial companies protected under the system.
Ombudsman Plan for NBFCs,The scheme will immediately enter into impact.
“In exercise of the power conferred by Section 45L of the Reserve Lender of India Work, 1934, the RBI being satisfied that for the purpose of enabling it to market conducive credit culture among the NBFCs and also to regulate the credit system of the united states to its benefit, it’s important to give something of ombudsman for redressal of complaints against insufficiency in services concerning deposits, advancements and loans and other specified issues, directs that the NBFCs hereby… should comply with the provisions of the Ombudsman Structure for non banking Financial Companies, 2018,” the notification mentioned.
An officer at the RBI not below the ranking of general supervisor will be appointed by the regulator as the ombudsman with territorial jurisdiction being specific by the central loan provider. The tenure of every ombudsman cannot exceed 3 years and can be reduced by the regulator if needed.
Any customer or person can file a compliant with the ombudsman on various grounds like nonpayment or inordinate delay in payment appealing, non-repayment of deposits, insufficient transparency in loan agreement, noncompliance with RBI directives on reasonable practices code for NBFCs, levying of charges without sufficient notice to the clients and failure or delay in returning the securities documents despite repayment of dues amongst others.
If a complaint is not resolved by agreement within a specified period as the ombudsman might permit the celebrations, he may, after affording the ongoing parties a “reasonable chance to present their case, either in writing or in a gathering, move an award either rejecting or allowing the issue”.
Only written complaints or those in electronic format will be accepted. The ombudsman could also compensate not exceeding 100,000 rupees to the complainant award, considering the increased loss of time, expenditures incurred, harassment and mental anguish experienced by the complainant.
The NBFC will, unless an appeal has been preferred by it, within a month from the date of receipt because of it of the acceptance on paper of the award by the complainant under sub-clause (8), adhere to the award and intimate conformity to the complainant and the ombudsman.
The scheme also allows a person to appeal in case there is dissatisfaction with any award by the ombudsman.
To start with, the plan shall cover all deposit-taking NBFCs. Based on the knowledge gained, the RBI would prolong the scheme to pay NBFCs having asset size of Rs 100 crore and above with customer user interface.
Based on the RBI, it ought to be the responsibility of the non banking financial company worried to implement the settlement appeared with the complainant or the Award handed by the Ombudsman when it becomes final and send a written report in this regard to the Reserve Standard bank within 15 times of the award becoming last.
Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)
A Nonbanking Financial Company (NBFC): is a company registered under the firms Act, 1956 engaged in the continuing business of loans and developments, acquisition of stocks/stocks/bonds securities issued by Federal government or local power or other marketable securities of the like character, leasing, hire-purchase, insurance business, chit business but will not include any institution whose principal business is that of agriculture activity, commercial activity, purchase or sale of any goods (apart from securities) or providing any services and sale/purchase/construction of immovable property. A Non-Banking institution which really is a company and has primary business of getting deposits under any plan or arrangement in a single lump amount or in installments by way of efforts or in virtually any other manner, is also a non banking financial company (Residuary nonbanking company).
RBI: Reserve Bank of India
The Reserve Loan company of India (RBI) is India’s central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee. April 1935 in accordance with the Reserve Bank of India Act it commenced its operations on 1, 1934.The RBI plays an important part in the Development Strategy of the nationwide authorities of India.
The RBI is also a banker to the federal government and performs merchant bank function for the central and the condition governments. It serves as their banker also.
The Ombudsman System has been formulated by the Reserve Loan provider of India (RBI) for effective addressing of complaints by lender customers. The RBI controls the monetary source, monitors economic indicators like the gross domestic product and must decide the look of the rupee banknotes as well as coins.